Applications

Given the unique features of the Sengenics Immunome technology, it can be used in many ways. Although this technology has significant potential, some of the ways we can apply them include:

Discovery of autoantibody-based therapeutics
  1. Autoantibodies

Autoantibodies are produced by the immune system in many pathogenic processes, and have been implicated as important biomarkers in cancer, auto-immune disease and cancer immunotherapy adverse drug reactions. Its appearance may precede disease symptoms by many years and due to the inherent amplification of the immune system, they are readily detectable. Their unique potential for pre-symptomatic and early diagnosis of disease makes autoantibodies exceptionally effective tools for biomarker discovery, and determining and analysing off-target cross-reactivity.

Sengenics’ Immunome protein array platform can help you discover processes and pathways that are affected by the autoantibodies easily, and is uniquely positioned to determine the autoantibody’s interaction with isoforms of the same protein in terms of linear AND conformational epitopes. Given that antibodies with high affinity & specificity can also be identified using Immunome, it can also assist in disease prediction and prognosis, which translates to more effective antibody-based therapeutics once combined with novel bioinformatics methods and algorithms.  This results in an increase of the probability of earlier diagnosis, improved disease prediction and stratification of patients.

Stratification of human response to drugs based on autoantibodies
  1. ADR Cancer Immunotherapy/Checkpoint Inhibitors

Adverse Drug Reactions in cancer immunotherapy

Immunotherapies have been changing the outlook for many cancer patients. Inhibition of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) and programmed death 1 (PD1) immune checkpoints has been proven to activate the immune system. Either individually or in combination, administration of CTLA4 and PD1 inhibitors have shown promising results for the treatment of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer.

However, as cancers are complex and diverse, what works well against one type of cancer might have little effect against another, and what works for some patients might not work for everyone. Due to this, despite its benefit, immunotherapies have been associated with immune-related adverse events (irAE), including autoimmunity. Therefore, profiling immunotherapy-related immuno-toxicity in cancer patients could serve as a tool to better predict the correct dosage and combination, as well as patient’s response to treatment. This could help lessen the effect of irAE in immunotherapies.

The unique surface technology that underpins the Immunome protein array platform makes it ideal for various medical and therapeutic proteomics applications, including cancer biomarker and neoantigen profiling, monitoring of patient response to therapy, protein-protein interaction mapping, modulation of protein function by PTMs and mutations, and quantification of drug selectivity.

Discovery of autoantibody biomarkers for diagnostics

Infectious diseases

  1. Diagnosis of various infectious diseases

Sengenics’ Immunome protein array platform can be customized to include viral/bacterial/parasitic antigens that can be used against human samples in order to diagnose infections.

  1. Biomarker discovery

This includes testing of various biological samples in an attempt to find biomarkers. Simultaneous and rapid analysis of thousands of proteins in a high-throughput manner is made possible using this protein microarray technology. The identification of multiple biomarkers can result in the development of clinical tests with improved sensitivity and specificity.

Functional assays for any protein and any interacting biomolecule
  1. Conventional receptor binding assay

Receptor binding assays using the Immunome protein array platform can be used in discovery and mechanism studies. With the enhanced precision that Immunome offers, one can produce results that are more biologically valid and relevant, reducing the time needed to discover new pathways and mechanisms in human diseases.

  1. Receptor binding disruption assay

Additionally, the receptor binding assays described above can also be combined with monoclonal antibodies (MAB) to ascertain the effectiveness of these compounds on the ability of the pathogen to bind to the receptor. With the enhanced precision that the Immunome protein array platform offers, the results are more biologically valid and relevant. Thus, reducing the time needed to discover new pathways and mechanisms in human diseases.

Characterisation of protein interactions with any other biomolecule
  1. Protein-X interactions

Protein-X studies can potentially allow us to elucidate the roles of various different proteins in the context of protein-protein interactions, as well as its role in various different types of cellular processes.

Examples of Protein-X interactions include:

Protein-protein

  • Kinase inhibition assays
  • Identification of off-target interactions
  • Identification of their mechanisms of action

Protein-small molecules

  • Discovery of novel protein connections
  • Predicting new interactome models
  • Mapping protein pathways

Protein-DNA

  • Quantification of DNA binding efficiency of proteins
  • Study of DNA repair mechanisms
  • Anti-viral activity research
  1. Predictive Toxicology

Adverse drug reactions is an issue for pharma, patients and hospitals because of the potential for injury, disability and loss of life.  However, the Sengenics Immunome platform allows you to accurately identify and examine interactions between proteins, biomarkers, and affected pathways. This allows you to anticipate the types of adverse effects that could manifest in patients, differentiate low-value and high value drug candidates, and plan your research cycle accordingly.   

An example use case for the Immunome protein array platform in relation to Predictive Toxicology is the Iressa case study. More information on this study can be found over here.

  1. Protein Production

Using this technology, we are also able to produce any protein at milligram-level quantity, using any expression system. To find out more about this service, please go to the Services page.